Alan Turing conceived the "Turing Test", which he called the "Imitation Game". The mathematician first proposed a scenario in which a human interrogator sitting in one room had to guess which of two individuals sitting in another room was a man and which was a woman. Today, it has been simplified to refer to a computer's ability to make a human believe, with a high percentage of success, that it too is human.
The term "artificial intelligence" is officially adopted at the Dartmouth Conference.
Researchers are trying to reproduce the workings of the human brain by imagining digital neural networks. But computers aren't powerful enough, so the idea is shelved.
The Eliza chatbot passed the Turing test for the first time. This program impersonated a psychologist simply by rephrasing the words of the "patient" in question.